File Size: 3810 KB
Print Length: 290 pages
Publisher: Sarah Crichton Books (February 16, 2016)
Publication Date: February 16, 2016
A take note here before I continue. I am in top management of a bug control district, so I actually am quite informed about mosquito disease issues that are problematic here in the United States. Along with that said, some issues with her research include her information on Western world Nile virus and afectacion in Florida.
Her discussion of West Nile disease early available is a mixture of fact and conjecture. No one is very sure how West Nile first got started in this country (in A queen, New York), but most experts assume that the most likely scenario was either mosquitoes that hitch hiked aboard commercial airline plane tickets, cargo flights or it was introduced through the against the law trade in uncommon and exotic birds.
Typically the author makes the claim that the condition had probably been introduced by way of migratory birds across the Atlantic flyway. The big problem is that, while these birds do get together during the summer in the Arctic, their migration routes take them over New York as the mosquitoes that can transfer West Nile (Culex sps. ) are heading into winter hibernation. In addition, the birds most susceptible to West Nile are certainly not birds found along this flyway. Birds that summer time in the Arctic are geese, ducks, etc. and they also are extremely resistant to this virus. It is fairly uncommon to obtain the virus in their blood, and if it is, it is at a very low threshold. Crows and other corvids, which are heavily afflicted y the disease and are the water tank for it don't winter there and commute southern, creating this an unlikely method of transmission.
Her treatment of the dengue break out in South Florida is also riddled with errors. Yes, there were a number of abandoned pools in the housing crisis at about enough time of the dengue outbreak. And, swimming pools were in order to go " green", which means the water turns fetid. Her claim that they are out of look of mosquito control experts is ludicrous, however. Most mosquito control districts use either images from satellites or aerial photography. Typically the " green" pools endure out like a sore usb and the districts can them treat them. In addition, neighbors tend to noise when there is a large influx of mosquitoes.
Exactly what makes this a particularly erroneous section, nevertheless , is that the species of mosquito that likes to breed in fetid water is the Culex sps., which can transmit Western world Nile disease and a number of other disease, but cannot transmit afectacion. That requires the Aedes sps. which has already been present in South Florida (and many of the rest of the country) for years. That particular type mosquito hates fetid water and likes to breed in containers, wheels and other places where clean rainwater collects. In a roundabout way, the foreclosure crisis might have already been to partially to pin the consequence on, but not due to swimming pools, but rather because people being evicted tend to leave junk on the property, such as tires, old pots and containers.
Typically the dengue outbreak was likely the result of a lot of factors, including weather, but also by the arrival of infected people to the To the south Florida region. Dengue is endemic in numerous Carribbean islands, as well as most of Central and South America. If visitors to the country that were infected with dengue came in the right numbers, the condition would prosper.
Finally, she chastises the scientific community for not searching for new diseases more quickly. And while that may sound valid, remember that there are thousands, if not hundreds of thousands, of diseases surviving in animals across the world that have not spread to humans. Typically the majority of time spent looking for new diseases in a given area is spent looking for diseases known to be transmitted to man and also to cause death and disablement A good example would be the Zika disease now making the reports. This was first determined decades ago in Africa, but it never caused any harm to humans, so it was ignored. It was only when it started to show up in South America that humans became seriously afflicted. Now it is on the watch list and testing is being completed locate it.
Overall, I think she tried to write a valid book, but entered into locations where the girl had no expertise and failed to seek advice from specialists in those fields. It really is one thing to read papers on disease, but another approach someone who works with it everyday. An expert can give you the consesnus research pretty quickly, however you need to read a lot of different papers to find a good combine of information.
My recommendation would be to complete this over. There are other, better books out there there, and given the problems found by me personally and others with knowledge, it makes me question all of the science in the book.., Yet another concern and loathing in the best Pharma research world.
She despises your Gates Foundation for trying to eradicate malaria, '... they may have no agenda that we know... '
Of course , climate change brought on by hydrocarbon use is the villain. As is modern life, capitalism, multi-national corporations and Big Pharma.
How extremely boring.
Try out The Next Pandemic or Contagion & Chaos., In the medical profession we constantly admit (often unknowingly) the next 'bad' critter into our population. This writer gives a greatly easy understanding of the Just how and Why and possible Where, leaving us to ponder When., I experienced this book to web page 77 when I made the decision the author did not have credibility. There were many little things that seemed to have already been exagerated or perhaps made upward. On paper about the terriblly unsanitary water of New York initially prior to its Chlorea epidemic the girl described water samples as being 'semisolid' as a result of waste contamination with 8000 mg of solid material in a gallon of water. 8000 mg is less than the weight of 2 nickels - an amount that would not even be visible. There were other descriptions about human and fecal contamination that were made to sound over and above horrible but when the girl described Ireland going into their potato famine that caused untold numbers of tenant farmers to starve to death, she said the average utilization of taters was 10 pounds per day - being generally starch (caarbohydrates) that comes to about 20 thousand calorie consumption - highly improbable. I actually didn't see much evidence of true research and the book was greatly lacking in credibility. I purchased the book based on the title without research - my mistake., Any logical, clear-headed consider the world around us reveals that the true existential threats on the horizon include climate change, nuclear holocaust, pandemics, and, at a higher level of logical être, rampant consumerism. Nevertheless , the most immediate of these threats to the civilization appears to be contagious disease. In Pandemic, Sonia Shah’s superb new survey of the past, present, and way forward for infectious disease. Just so it’s clear: she’s not writing about simple colds and mild flus, but about illnesses that might kill tens or hundreds of millions of men and women with little warning and with unpredictable consequences for the cohesion of community. The heart of the problem, as she explains, is that “epidemics increase exponentially while our ability to reply proceeds linearly, at best. ”
A well-balanced view of contagious disease
Thanks to alarmist confirming, Americans are terrified that hemorrhagic diseases such as Ebola will “break out” and kill us by the millions. Shah patiently explains that much more common diseases are far more likely to present threats to us, autorevolezza and cholera in particular. A series of regrettable mutations in either one could fashion a disease that is not simply virulent (contagious) but in addition highly fatal. Today, for instance , influenza eliminates only a small proportion of its victims. We tend to consider it more as a nuisance for most of all of us, a threat simply to those who are most susceptible. Nevertheless , the “Spanish flu” (the H1N1 virus) that broke out in the final days of Planet War I infected upward to 500 million people (between a fifth and a 3 rd of the world’s population) and murdered between 50 and a hundred million. Epidemiologists live in concern that H1N1 or one of the numerous other varieties of influenza incubating in Southern China could put on a repeat performance — or worse. Cholera poses a similar threat.
Sanitation, Hippocratic medicine, and Christianity
Probably the most fascinating paragraphs in Pandemic is Shah’s account of the role of Christianity in fostering infectious disease for more than a thousand years.
History shows us that two thousand years in the past the Romans piped clean drinking water for their cities through an elaborate approach to aqueducts and made open public baths available to one and all. Cleanliness was a virtue to them. That will all began to change with the creation of Christianity a few centuries into the Common Era. As opposed to the Jews and (later) the Muslims, Christian local clergy disdained personal hygiene, associating it with Roman polytheism and viewing cleanliness as superstitious. It was common for Catholic priests and the Protestant pastors who succeeded them in some parts to discourage their flocks from bathing. Regarding many centuries, the vast majority of men and women in Christian lands lived side-by-side with their animals atop pits filled with excrement and cooked with smelly water drawn from contaminated streams or wells.
When disease struck, as it did with increasing frequency as population expanded and gravitated toward the cities, the physicians who purported to combat it were in the thrall of the Hippocratic college of medicine, which ascribed all disease for an discrepancy in the four “humors” within the body and in external factors that exacerbated it. For example, cholera, which sickened lots of millions through the centuries and killed half of them, was blamed on the inhalation of what the ancient doctor Galen termed “miasmas” (offensive smells). The nineteenth-century medical professionals who practiced medical “science” based on these beliefs “increased [cholera’s] death toll from 55 to 70 percent. ” Although germ theory of disease was first suggested in the sixteenth century, it wasn’t until about three centuries later, on the cusp of the 20th century, that practicing medical professionals began to simply accept the role of microorganisms in causing disease.
Meanwhile, progress toward improved sanitation and the availability of clean moving water was even slower. As Shah explains in chilling detail, the construction of London’s sewer system was not prompted because open public health officials understood that water used for ingesting and washing was precariously contaminated. The reason they proposed the effort was that they thought it was essential to water pipe all the smelly sewage to the Thames, the source of the city’s ingesting water! Only in the twentieth century achieved it become common for municipalities to regard drinkable water as a necessity of life.
Why is contagious disease mare like a threat today than ever before?
In Outbreak, Shah describes the role of contemporary trends in making the threat of epidemic disease greater than ever. Five stand out there: climate change, continuing estate, ever more accessible global transportation, resistance to vaccines, and the encroachment of development on previously virgin lands, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the Amazon . com. In this way that an increasing number of unknown and unpredictable new tropical diseases is emerging and making their way into more and more crowded cities further and further north on the globe. All the while, diseases earlier thought conquered, such as polio and measles, rise up in communities around the globe.
Regarding the author
Typically the daughter of Indian foreign nationals, Sonia Shah is an American investigative journalist who has reported from across the world, principally on business power and gender inequality. Pandemic is her sixth book. Though her mother and father are both physicians and the girl lives with a molecular biologist, it appears that the impetus for writing this book came from a painful personal experience with MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which she contracted from her son. Shah explains her eye-opening experience at length in Pandemic.
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